Motivating the citizen soldiers: French troops and the Revolutionary Wars 1792-1802 (Part 4, by Valentin Boulan)

Chapter Three: On the importance of Group Dynamics Studies about troop motivations have often been subject to a heated two sided debate, concerned by whether broad ideas or group dynamics within regiments themselves played a greater role in galvanising soldiers. … Continue reading

Motivating the citizen soldiers: French troops and the Revolutionary Wars 1792-1802 (Part 3, by Valentin Boulan)

Chapter Two: ‘Dedicated body and soul to the cause they served ’ According to Robben, fighting motivations can be divided into two broad categories: the original motivations to enlist, determined by the pre-war context as discussed in Chapter One, and … Continue reading

Motivating the citizen soldiers: French troops and the Revolutionary Wars 1792-1802 (Part 2, by Valentin Boulan)

Chapter One: ‘Aux armes citoyens!’ – Myth or Reality ? The formation of the Revolutionary army was a complex process, which took over a year and several enrolment campaigns to finalise. This progression can be divided into two main stages, … Continue reading

Motivating the citizen soldiers: French troops and the Revolutionary Wars 1792-1802 (Part 1, by Valentin Boulan)

The Revolutionary Wars, beginning in April 1792 when France declared war on Austria, were an inevitable consequence of the French Revolution, which generated ideas of democracy and individual freedom, threatening the rest of Europe’s autocratic states. Although France would be … Continue reading

How did Bernard of Clairvaux Respond to the Growth of the Schools in the Twelfth Century? (Part 2, by Timothy Farrant)

Bernard’s criticisms of the worldly tendencies of the schoolmen cannot be viewed in isolation. Just as not all schoolmen were vain, neither were all monks free from vice. Throughout his life, Bernard (as well as warning schoolmen of the dangers … Continue reading

How did Bernard of Clairvaux Respond to the Growth of the Schools in the Twelfth Century? (Part 1, by Timothy Farrant)

In his work, The Origins of the University, Ferruolo described Bernard of Clairvaux as a bitter opponent of the schools of Northern France. Even though the vast majority of his argument focused on Bernard’s conflict with schoolmen such as Peter … Continue reading

Robespierre: Tyrant, Politician or Fanatic? (Part 2, by William Miles)

The period leading up to the Terror reveals not a man who foresaw or planned the violence that was to plague France in 1794, but rather one driven by outer circumstances, reacting to events around him. The atmosphere of alarm … Continue reading

Robespierre: Tyrant, Politician or Fanatic? (Part 1, by William Miles)

The circumstances surrounding the Terror in the French Revolution have split historians over the past centuries and continue to arouse debate even in the present day. Hugh Gough, in his aptly named book The Terror in the French Revolution, has … Continue reading

How important was Napoleon Bonaparte’s use of propaganda and censorship in the rise and consolidation of his power in France? (Part 2, by Valentin Boulan)

One way in which Napoleon ensured to retain his public image and avoid criticism throughout his reign was by increasing his influence on all written information, starting, of course with the press. As previously mentioned, by the late 18th century … Continue reading