Was the collapse of Christian unity and the emergence of Protestantism inevitable in 1517? (by Valentin Boulan)

In 1517, Martin Luther published his highly controversial Ninety-Five Thesis, which severely challenged the authority of the Church, and would result in the establishment of the Lutheran Church half a decade later. Consequently, 1517 has often been regarded as the … Continue reading

How did Bernard of Clairvaux Respond to the Growth of the Schools in the Twelfth Century? (Part 2, by Timothy Farrant)

Bernard’s criticisms of the worldly tendencies of the schoolmen cannot be viewed in isolation. Just as not all schoolmen were vain, neither were all monks free from vice. Throughout his life, Bernard (as well as warning schoolmen of the dangers … Continue reading

How serious was the threat posed by heresy to the authority of the Church in the medieval period? (by Valentin Boulan)

A religious society. Although much remains to be studied about the Middle Ages, and whilst historians rarely reach a consensus about the period, one may label the idea that medieval society was greatly influenced by religion an established historical assumption. … Continue reading