How did Bernard of Clairvaux Respond to the Growth of the Schools in the Twelfth Century? (Part 2, by Timothy Farrant)

Bernard’s criticisms of the worldly tendencies of the schoolmen cannot be viewed in isolation. Just as not all schoolmen were vain, neither were all monks free from vice. Throughout his life, Bernard (as well as warning schoolmen of the dangers … Continue reading

How did Bernard of Clairvaux Respond to the Growth of the Schools in the Twelfth Century? (Part 1, by Timothy Farrant)

In his work, The Origins of the University, Ferruolo described Bernard of Clairvaux as a bitter opponent of the schools of Northern France. Even though the vast majority of his argument focused on Bernard’s conflict with schoolmen such as Peter … Continue reading

How important was Napoleon Bonaparte’s use of propaganda and censorship in the rise and consolidation of his power in France? (Part 2, by Valentin Boulan)

One way in which Napoleon ensured to retain his public image and avoid criticism throughout his reign was by increasing his influence on all written information, starting, of course with the press. As previously mentioned, by the late 18th century … Continue reading